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The word photon is one of the most confusing and misemployed words in physics. A small selection from the difference in word choice : the photon in spectroscopy as to explain how spectra are connected to the atoms and molecules has an another understanding than those in photon quantum optics experiments and again those have another understanding as from the photons used in high energy research and then there are the photons in the photoelectric effect, photons jumping around in atoms, the Compton scattering, Feynman diagrams, virtual photons, photons in two photon physics, Thomson scattering …and the photons that are usually associated with our ability to see …..

It is the intention to shed more "light" on the world of the photon and the part it plays in the scenery of the universe by putting it in its proper perspective, with some remarkable results.

Exploring the Casimir vacuum proper space and proper time give a new meaning to mass

The "fine structure constant" has always been a dimensionless quantity, one thought ... but it is not, and surprisingly enough, electromagnetic energy (photons) plays a part in this.

As for the electron " …. JJ Thomson got the Nobel Prize for demonstrating the corpuscular nature of the electron, while his son GP Thomson got the same prize for demonstrating the non-corpuscular nature of the electron … "

… it is time for some audacious thoughts exercises.

EXPLORING THE INFINITE SMALL TO UNDERSTAND INFINITY In "Uncharted Territory, a voyage of discovery into the geometry and substance of our universe, the next challenge: an anatomy of a quantum of space", a paper written in partnership, I brought forward that the connection between all the fundamental forces in nature is a hexagonal building block made of vibrating strings, the QUANTUM OF SPACE - Qs , which has led to defining the structure of empty space ℧m … ℧m = (lpz .Qs )n …. a 3D structure composed of infinitely small interconnected vibrating points shaped as hexagons, a matrix structure, with exceptional properties. As I was searching for an answer on the energy density in "empty space" and in a "vacuum", the Casimir vacuum was found to be the key to the secret of the molding of the elementary particles. Exploring the reality with different dimensions opened the door to a unified field theory ajar … and an attempt was made. At the end of the voyage a question did arises … "do we need other insights such as higher dimensions, strange mathematical twists … to uncover the true nature of the universe??" To answer that question, it is crucial
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