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Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games

Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Vicens, Julian; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Perelló, Josep; Moreno, Yamir; Duch, Jordi; Sánchez, Angel


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    "keywords": [
      "cooperation", 
      "dyadic games", 
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      "cooperative phenotype"
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    "publication_date": "2017-12-22", 
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        "orcid": "0000-0003-2791-7524", 
        "affiliation": "Departament d'Enginyeria Inform\u00e0tica i Matem\u00e0tiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain", 
        "name": "Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Departament de F\u00edsica de la Mat\u00e8ria Condensada, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain", 
        "name": "Guti\u00e9rrez-Roig, Mario"
      }, 
      {
        "orcid": "0000-0002-9769-8796", 
        "affiliation": "Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain", 
        "name": "Gracia-L\u00e1zaro, Carlos"
      }, 
      {
        "orcid": "0000-0003-0643-0469", 
        "affiliation": "Departament d'Enginyeria Inform\u00e0tica i Matem\u00e0tiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain", 
        "name": "Vicens, Julian"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain", 
        "name": "G\u00f3mez-Garde\u00f1es, Jes\u00fas"
      }, 
      {
        "orcid": "0000-0001-8533-6539", 
        "affiliation": "Departament de F\u00edsica de la Mat\u00e8ria Condensada, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain", 
        "name": "Perell\u00f3, Josep"
      }, 
      {
        "orcid": "0000-0002-0895-1893", 
        "affiliation": "Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain", 
        "name": "Moreno, Yamir"
      }, 
      {
        "orcid": "0000-0003-2639-6333", 
        "affiliation": "Departament d'Enginyeria Inform\u00e0tica i Matem\u00e0tiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain", 
        "name": "Duch, Jordi"
      }, 
      {
        "orcid": "0000-0003-1874-2881", 
        "affiliation": "Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Matem\u00e1ticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Legan\u00e9s, Madrid, Spain", 
        "name": "S\u00e1nchez, Angel"
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    ], 
    "notes": "Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games.\nJulia Poncela-Casasnovas, Mario Guti\u00e9rrez-Roig, Carlos Gracia-L\u00e1zaro, Julian Vicens, Jes\u00fas G\u00f3mez-Garde\u00f1es, Josep Perell\u00f3, Yamir Moreno, Jordi Duch and Angel S\u00e1nchez.\nScience Advances Vol. 2, no. 8, 2016.\nDOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600451", 
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    "description": "<p>Socially relevant situations that involve strategic interactions are widespread among animals and humans alike. To study these situations, theoretical and experimental research has adopted a game theoretical perspective, generating valuable insights about human behavior. However, most of the results reported so far have been obtained from a population perspective and considered one specific conflicting situation at a time. This makes it difficult to extract conclusions about the consistency of individuals&rsquo; behavior when facing different situations and to define a comprehensive classification of the strategies underlying the observed behaviors. We present the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment in which subjects face four different dyadic games, with the aim of establishing general behavioral rules dictating individuals&rsquo; actions. By analyzing our data with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, we find that all the subjects conform, with a large degree of consistency, to a limited number of behavioral phenotypes (envious, optimist, pessimist, and trustful), with only a small fraction of undefined subjects. We also discuss the possible connections to existing interpretations based on a priori theoretical approaches. Our findings provide a relevant contribution to the experimental and theoretical efforts toward the identification of basic behavioral phenotypes in a wider set of contexts without aprioristic assumptions regarding the rules or strategies behind actions. From this perspective, our work contributes to a fact-based approach to the study of human behavior in strategic situations, which could be applied to simulating societies, policy-making scenario building, and even a variety of business applications.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The data from the &quot;dr Brain&quot; experiment is organized in two separated files: drbrain_users.csv<br>\n&nbsp;and drbrain_decisions.csv.</p>\n\n<p><br>\n1.) &nbsp; drbrain_users.csv contains information about the participants of the experiment (or users).<br>\nThere is one row per user, with the following information about each one of them:</p>\n\n<p>User_ID: unique ID number to identify the user.<br>\nAge: user&#39;s age<br>\nGender: user&#39;s gender<br>\nExperiment_number: Number of the experiment the user participated in. For organizational reasons, our research actually was made 45 experiments (or replicas) run over a period of 2 days, each one run with differnt users. A user was only allowed to participate in one experiment. Each experiment included between 10-25 users typically, and they played around 13-18 game rounds, typically. Each round and each couple of users played in different games (that is, different values of S, Sucker&#39;s payoff, and T, Temptation to defect, while the values of P=5 , Punishment, and R=10, Reward, were always fixed).<br>\nEarnings: number of points the user obtained in total, over all rounds.</p>\n\n<p><br>\n2.) &nbsp; drbrain_decisions.csv &nbsp;contains the information of the all game rounds for all experiments and all users.<br>\nUser_ID: unique ID number to identify the user.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<br>\nExperiment_number: Number of the experiment the user participated in.<br>\nRound_number: Number of the round within a given experiment.<br>\nS: Value for the &quot;Sucker&#39;s payoff&quot; in the game of that round.<br>\nT: Value for the &quot;Temptation to defect&quot; in the game of that round.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<br>\nGame: Name of the game corresponding to those values of S and T for that round<br>\nAction: Action chosen by the user (C: cooperate, D: defect)<br>\nOpponent_ID: ID number of the user&#39;s opponent in that round.&nbsp;<br>\nOpponent_Action: Action (C or D) chosen by the user&#39;s opponent in that round.</p>\n\n<p>--------</p>\n\n<p>For more details, see our research article:</p>\n\n<p>Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games.<br>\nJulia Poncela-Casasnovas, Mario Guti&eacute;rrez-Roig, Carlos Gracia-L&aacute;zaro, Julian Vicens, Jes&uacute;s G&oacute;mez-Garde&ntilde;es, Josep Perell&oacute;, Yamir Moreno, Jordi Duch and Angel S&aacute;nchez.<br>\nScience Advances Vol. 2, no. 8, 2016.<br>\nDOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600451<br>\nhttp://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/8/e1600451</p>"
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