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Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games

Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Vicens, Julian; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Perelló, Josep; Moreno, Yamir; Duch, Jordi; Sánchez, Angel


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  <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.5281/zenodo.1127154</identifier>
  <creators>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia</creatorName>
      <givenName>Julia</givenName>
      <familyName>Poncela-Casasnovas</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0003-2791-7524</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Departament d'Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario</creatorName>
      <givenName>Mario</givenName>
      <familyName>Gutiérrez-Roig</familyName>
      <affiliation>Departament de Física de la Matèria Condensada, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos</creatorName>
      <givenName>Carlos</givenName>
      <familyName>Gracia-Lázaro</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0002-9769-8796</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Vicens, Julian</creatorName>
      <givenName>Julian</givenName>
      <familyName>Vicens</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0003-0643-0469</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Departament d'Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús</creatorName>
      <givenName>Jesús</givenName>
      <familyName>Gómez-Gardeñes</familyName>
      <affiliation>Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Perelló, Josep</creatorName>
      <givenName>Josep</givenName>
      <familyName>Perelló</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0001-8533-6539</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Departament de Física de la Matèria Condensada, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Moreno, Yamir</creatorName>
      <givenName>Yamir</givenName>
      <familyName>Moreno</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0002-0895-1893</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Duch, Jordi</creatorName>
      <givenName>Jordi</givenName>
      <familyName>Duch</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0003-2639-6333</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Departament d'Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Sánchez, Angel</creatorName>
      <givenName>Angel</givenName>
      <familyName>Sánchez</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0003-1874-2881</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
  </creators>
  <titles>
    <title>Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games</title>
  </titles>
  <publisher>Zenodo</publisher>
  <publicationYear>2017</publicationYear>
  <subjects>
    <subject>cooperation</subject>
    <subject>dyadic games</subject>
    <subject>social dilemmas</subject>
    <subject>experiment</subject>
    <subject>behavior</subject>
    <subject>rationality</subject>
    <subject>risk-aversion</subject>
    <subject>altruism</subject>
    <subject>cooperative phenotype</subject>
  </subjects>
  <dates>
    <date dateType="Issued">2017-12-22</date>
  </dates>
  <language>en</language>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Dataset"/>
  <alternateIdentifiers>
    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="url">https://zenodo.org/record/1127154</alternateIdentifier>
  </alternateIdentifiers>
  <relatedIdentifiers>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsCitedBy">10.1126/sciadv.1600451</relatedIdentifier>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsVersionOf">10.5281/zenodo.1127153</relatedIdentifier>
  </relatedIdentifiers>
  <version>1</version>
  <rightsList>
    <rights rightsURI="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/legalcode">Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
  </rightsList>
  <descriptions>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;Socially relevant situations that involve strategic interactions are widespread among animals and humans alike. To study these situations, theoretical and experimental research has adopted a game theoretical perspective, generating valuable insights about human behavior. However, most of the results reported so far have been obtained from a population perspective and considered one specific conflicting situation at a time. This makes it difficult to extract conclusions about the consistency of individuals&amp;rsquo; behavior when facing different situations and to define a comprehensive classification of the strategies underlying the observed behaviors. We present the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment in which subjects face four different dyadic games, with the aim of establishing general behavioral rules dictating individuals&amp;rsquo; actions. By analyzing our data with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, we find that all the subjects conform, with a large degree of consistency, to a limited number of behavioral phenotypes (envious, optimist, pessimist, and trustful), with only a small fraction of undefined subjects. We also discuss the possible connections to existing interpretations based on a priori theoretical approaches. Our findings provide a relevant contribution to the experimental and theoretical efforts toward the identification of basic behavioral phenotypes in a wider set of contexts without aprioristic assumptions regarding the rules or strategies behind actions. From this perspective, our work contributes to a fact-based approach to the study of human behavior in strategic situations, which could be applied to simulating societies, policy-making scenario building, and even a variety of business applications.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;The data from the &amp;quot;dr Brain&amp;quot; experiment is organized in two separated files: drbrain_users.csv&lt;br&gt;
&amp;nbsp;and drbrain_decisions.csv.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;br&gt;
1.) &amp;nbsp; drbrain_users.csv contains information about the participants of the experiment (or users).&lt;br&gt;
There is one row per user, with the following information about each one of them:&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;User_ID: unique ID number to identify the user.&lt;br&gt;
Age: user&amp;#39;s age&lt;br&gt;
Gender: user&amp;#39;s gender&lt;br&gt;
Experiment_number: Number of the experiment the user participated in. For organizational reasons, our research actually was made 45 experiments (or replicas) run over a period of 2 days, each one run with differnt users. A user was only allowed to participate in one experiment. Each experiment included between 10-25 users typically, and they played around 13-18 game rounds, typically. Each round and each couple of users played in different games (that is, different values of S, Sucker&amp;#39;s payoff, and T, Temptation to defect, while the values of P=5 , Punishment, and R=10, Reward, were always fixed).&lt;br&gt;
Earnings: number of points the user obtained in total, over all rounds.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;br&gt;
2.) &amp;nbsp; drbrain_decisions.csv &amp;nbsp;contains the information of the all game rounds for all experiments and all users.&lt;br&gt;
User_ID: unique ID number to identify the user.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp;&lt;br&gt;
Experiment_number: Number of the experiment the user participated in.&lt;br&gt;
Round_number: Number of the round within a given experiment.&lt;br&gt;
S: Value for the &amp;quot;Sucker&amp;#39;s payoff&amp;quot; in the game of that round.&lt;br&gt;
T: Value for the &amp;quot;Temptation to defect&amp;quot; in the game of that round.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp;&lt;br&gt;
Game: Name of the game corresponding to those values of S and T for that round&lt;br&gt;
Action: Action chosen by the user (C: cooperate, D: defect)&lt;br&gt;
Opponent_ID: ID number of the user&amp;#39;s opponent in that round.&amp;nbsp;&lt;br&gt;
Opponent_Action: Action (C or D) chosen by the user&amp;#39;s opponent in that round.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;--------&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;For more details, see our research article:&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games.&lt;br&gt;
Julia Poncela-Casasnovas, Mario Guti&amp;eacute;rrez-Roig, Carlos Gracia-L&amp;aacute;zaro, Julian Vicens, Jes&amp;uacute;s G&amp;oacute;mez-Garde&amp;ntilde;es, Josep Perell&amp;oacute;, Yamir Moreno, Jordi Duch and Angel S&amp;aacute;nchez.&lt;br&gt;
Science Advances Vol. 2, no. 8, 2016.&lt;br&gt;
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600451&lt;br&gt;
http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/8/e1600451&lt;/p&gt;</description>
    <description descriptionType="Other">Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games.
Julia Poncela-Casasnovas, Mario Gutiérrez-Roig, Carlos Gracia-Lázaro, Julian Vicens, Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes, Josep Perelló, Yamir Moreno, Jordi Duch and Angel Sánchez.
Science Advances Vol. 2, no. 8, 2016.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600451</description>
  </descriptions>
  <fundingReferences>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/640772/">640772</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>Distributed Global Financial Systems for Society</awardTitle>
    </fundingReference>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/317532/">317532</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>Foundational Research on MULTIlevel comPLEX networks and systems</awardTitle>
    </fundingReference>
  </fundingReferences>
</resource>
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