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Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games

Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Vicens, Julian; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Perelló, Josep; Moreno, Yamir; Duch, Jordi; Sánchez, Angel


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    <dct:title>Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games</dct:title>
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    <dcat:keyword>cooperation</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>dyadic games</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>social dilemmas</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>experiment</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>behavior</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>rationality</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>risk-aversion</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>altruism</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>cooperative phenotype</dcat:keyword>
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    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date">2017-12-22</dct:issued>
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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;Socially relevant situations that involve strategic interactions are widespread among animals and humans alike. To study these situations, theoretical and experimental research has adopted a game theoretical perspective, generating valuable insights about human behavior. However, most of the results reported so far have been obtained from a population perspective and considered one specific conflicting situation at a time. This makes it difficult to extract conclusions about the consistency of individuals&amp;rsquo; behavior when facing different situations and to define a comprehensive classification of the strategies underlying the observed behaviors. We present the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment in which subjects face four different dyadic games, with the aim of establishing general behavioral rules dictating individuals&amp;rsquo; actions. By analyzing our data with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, we find that all the subjects conform, with a large degree of consistency, to a limited number of behavioral phenotypes (envious, optimist, pessimist, and trustful), with only a small fraction of undefined subjects. We also discuss the possible connections to existing interpretations based on a priori theoretical approaches. Our findings provide a relevant contribution to the experimental and theoretical efforts toward the identification of basic behavioral phenotypes in a wider set of contexts without aprioristic assumptions regarding the rules or strategies behind actions. From this perspective, our work contributes to a fact-based approach to the study of human behavior in strategic situations, which could be applied to simulating societies, policy-making scenario building, and even a variety of business applications.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;The data from the &amp;quot;dr Brain&amp;quot; experiment is organized in two separated files: drbrain_users.csv&lt;br&gt; &amp;nbsp;and drbrain_decisions.csv.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;br&gt; 1.) &amp;nbsp; drbrain_users.csv contains information about the participants of the experiment (or users).&lt;br&gt; There is one row per user, with the following information about each one of them:&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;User_ID: unique ID number to identify the user.&lt;br&gt; Age: user&amp;#39;s age&lt;br&gt; Gender: user&amp;#39;s gender&lt;br&gt; Experiment_number: Number of the experiment the user participated in. For organizational reasons, our research actually was made 45 experiments (or replicas) run over a period of 2 days, each one run with differnt users. A user was only allowed to participate in one experiment. Each experiment included between 10-25 users typically, and they played around 13-18 game rounds, typically. Each round and each couple of users played in different games (that is, different values of S, Sucker&amp;#39;s payoff, and T, Temptation to defect, while the values of P=5 , Punishment, and R=10, Reward, were always fixed).&lt;br&gt; Earnings: number of points the user obtained in total, over all rounds.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;br&gt; 2.) &amp;nbsp; drbrain_decisions.csv &amp;nbsp;contains the information of the all game rounds for all experiments and all users.&lt;br&gt; User_ID: unique ID number to identify the user.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp;&lt;br&gt; Experiment_number: Number of the experiment the user participated in.&lt;br&gt; Round_number: Number of the round within a given experiment.&lt;br&gt; S: Value for the &amp;quot;Sucker&amp;#39;s payoff&amp;quot; in the game of that round.&lt;br&gt; T: Value for the &amp;quot;Temptation to defect&amp;quot; in the game of that round.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp;&lt;br&gt; Game: Name of the game corresponding to those values of S and T for that round&lt;br&gt; Action: Action chosen by the user (C: cooperate, D: defect)&lt;br&gt; Opponent_ID: ID number of the user&amp;#39;s opponent in that round.&amp;nbsp;&lt;br&gt; Opponent_Action: Action (C or D) chosen by the user&amp;#39;s opponent in that round.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;--------&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;For more details, see our research article:&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games.&lt;br&gt; Julia Poncela-Casasnovas, Mario Guti&amp;eacute;rrez-Roig, Carlos Gracia-L&amp;aacute;zaro, Julian Vicens, Jes&amp;uacute;s G&amp;oacute;mez-Garde&amp;ntilde;es, Josep Perell&amp;oacute;, Yamir Moreno, Jordi Duch and Angel S&amp;aacute;nchez.&lt;br&gt; Science Advances Vol. 2, no. 8, 2016.&lt;br&gt; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600451&lt;br&gt; http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/8/e1600451&lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
    <dct:description xml:lang="">Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games. Julia Poncela-Casasnovas, Mario Gutiérrez-Roig, Carlos Gracia-Lázaro, Julian Vicens, Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes, Josep Perelló, Yamir Moreno, Jordi Duch and Angel Sánchez. Science Advances Vol. 2, no. 8, 2016. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600451</dct:description>
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