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Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games

Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Vicens, Julian; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Perelló, Josep; Moreno, Yamir; Duch, Jordi; Sánchez, Angel


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{
  "publisher": "Zenodo", 
  "DOI": "10.5281/zenodo.1127154", 
  "container_title": "Science Advances", 
  "language": "eng", 
  "title": "Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
      [
        2017, 
        12, 
        22
      ]
    ]
  }, 
  "abstract": "<p>Socially relevant situations that involve strategic interactions are widespread among animals and humans alike. To study these situations, theoretical and experimental research has adopted a game theoretical perspective, generating valuable insights about human behavior. However, most of the results reported so far have been obtained from a population perspective and considered one specific conflicting situation at a time. This makes it difficult to extract conclusions about the consistency of individuals&rsquo; behavior when facing different situations and to define a comprehensive classification of the strategies underlying the observed behaviors. We present the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment in which subjects face four different dyadic games, with the aim of establishing general behavioral rules dictating individuals&rsquo; actions. By analyzing our data with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, we find that all the subjects conform, with a large degree of consistency, to a limited number of behavioral phenotypes (envious, optimist, pessimist, and trustful), with only a small fraction of undefined subjects. We also discuss the possible connections to existing interpretations based on a priori theoretical approaches. Our findings provide a relevant contribution to the experimental and theoretical efforts toward the identification of basic behavioral phenotypes in a wider set of contexts without aprioristic assumptions regarding the rules or strategies behind actions. From this perspective, our work contributes to a fact-based approach to the study of human behavior in strategic situations, which could be applied to simulating societies, policy-making scenario building, and even a variety of business applications.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The data from the &quot;dr Brain&quot; experiment is organized in two separated files: drbrain_users.csv<br>\n&nbsp;and drbrain_decisions.csv.</p>\n\n<p><br>\n1.) &nbsp; drbrain_users.csv contains information about the participants of the experiment (or users).<br>\nThere is one row per user, with the following information about each one of them:</p>\n\n<p>User_ID: unique ID number to identify the user.<br>\nAge: user&#39;s age<br>\nGender: user&#39;s gender<br>\nExperiment_number: Number of the experiment the user participated in. For organizational reasons, our research actually was made 45 experiments (or replicas) run over a period of 2 days, each one run with differnt users. A user was only allowed to participate in one experiment. Each experiment included between 10-25 users typically, and they played around 13-18 game rounds, typically. Each round and each couple of users played in different games (that is, different values of S, Sucker&#39;s payoff, and T, Temptation to defect, while the values of P=5 , Punishment, and R=10, Reward, were always fixed).<br>\nEarnings: number of points the user obtained in total, over all rounds.</p>\n\n<p><br>\n2.) &nbsp; drbrain_decisions.csv &nbsp;contains the information of the all game rounds for all experiments and all users.<br>\nUser_ID: unique ID number to identify the user.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<br>\nExperiment_number: Number of the experiment the user participated in.<br>\nRound_number: Number of the round within a given experiment.<br>\nS: Value for the &quot;Sucker&#39;s payoff&quot; in the game of that round.<br>\nT: Value for the &quot;Temptation to defect&quot; in the game of that round.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<br>\nGame: Name of the game corresponding to those values of S and T for that round<br>\nAction: Action chosen by the user (C: cooperate, D: defect)<br>\nOpponent_ID: ID number of the user&#39;s opponent in that round.&nbsp;<br>\nOpponent_Action: Action (C or D) chosen by the user&#39;s opponent in that round.</p>\n\n<p>--------</p>\n\n<p>For more details, see our research article:</p>\n\n<p>Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games.<br>\nJulia Poncela-Casasnovas, Mario Guti&eacute;rrez-Roig, Carlos Gracia-L&aacute;zaro, Julian Vicens, Jes&uacute;s G&oacute;mez-Garde&ntilde;es, Josep Perell&oacute;, Yamir Moreno, Jordi Duch and Angel S&aacute;nchez.<br>\nScience Advances Vol. 2, no. 8, 2016.<br>\nDOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600451<br>\nhttp://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/8/e1600451</p>", 
  "author": [
    {
      "family": "Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Guti\u00e9rrez-Roig, Mario"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Gracia-L\u00e1zaro, Carlos"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Vicens, Julian"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "G\u00f3mez-Garde\u00f1es, Jes\u00fas"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Perell\u00f3, Josep"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Moreno, Yamir"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Duch, Jordi"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "S\u00e1nchez, Angel"
    }
  ], 
  "volume": "2", 
  "note": "Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games.\nJulia Poncela-Casasnovas, Mario Guti\u00e9rrez-Roig, Carlos Gracia-L\u00e1zaro, Julian Vicens, Jes\u00fas G\u00f3mez-Garde\u00f1es, Josep Perell\u00f3, Yamir Moreno, Jordi Duch and Angel S\u00e1nchez.\nScience Advances Vol. 2, no. 8, 2016.\nDOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600451", 
  "version": "1", 
  "type": "dataset", 
  "issue": "8", 
  "id": "1127154"
}
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