Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production
In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.
A.W.M. Ip, J.P. Barford, G. McKay, "Production and comparison of high surface area bamboo derived active carbons," Bioresour. Technol., 99 (18), pp. 8909–8916, 2008.
D. Adinata, W.M. Wan Daud, M.K. Aroua, "Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from palm shell by chemical activation with K2CO3," Bioresour. Technol., 98 (1), pp. 145–149, 2007.
D. Kalderis, S. Bethanis, P. Paraskeva, E. Diamadopoulos, "Production of activated carbon from bagasse and rice husk by a single-stage chemical activation method at low retention times," Bioresour. Technol., 99 (15), pp. 6809–6816, 2008.
D.A.Z. Wever, H.J. Heeres, A.A. Broekhuis, "Characterization of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) shells," Biomass Bioenerg., 37, pp. 177–187, 2012.
J.C. Moreno-Pirajan, L. Giraldo, "Study of activated carbons by pyrolysis of cassava peel in the presence of chloride zinc," J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 87 (2), pp. 288–290, 2010.
P. Luangkiattikhun, C. Tangsathitkulchai, M. Tangsathitkulchai, "Non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis of oil-palm solid wastes," Bioresour. Technol., 99 (5), pp. 986–997, 2008.
V. Fierro, G. Muñiz, A.H. Basta, H. El-Saied, A. Celzard, "Rice straw as precursor of activated carbons: Activation with ortho-phosphoric acid," J. Hazard. Mater., 181, pp. 27–34, 2010.
W. Tongpoothorn, M. Sriuttha, P. Homchan, S. Chanthai, C. Ruangviriyachai, "Preparation of activated carbon derived from Jatropha curcas fruit shell by simple thermo-chemical activation and characterization of their physico-chemical properties," Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 89 (3), pp. 335–340, 2011.
 V. Sricharoenchaikul, D. Atong, "Thermal decomposition study on Jatropha curcas L. waste using TGA and fixed bed reactor," J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 85, pp. 155–162, 2009.
 J. Guo, A.C. Lua, "Textural and chemical characterizations of adsorbent prepared from palm shell by potassium hydroxide impregnation at different stages," J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 254 (2), pp. 227–233, 2002.
 K.Y. Foo, B.H. Hameed, "Preparation of oil palm (Elaeis) empty fruit bunch activated carbon by microwave-assisted KOH activation for the adsorption of methylene blue," Desalination, 275 (1–3), pp. 302–305, 2011.
 A.L. Ahmad, M.M. Loh, J.A. Aziz, "Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from oil palm wood and its evaluation on methylene blue adsorption," Dyes Pigments, 75 (2), pp. 263–272, 2007.
 B.K. Hamad, A.M. Noor, A.R. Afida, M.N.M. Asri, "High removal of 4-chloroguaiacol by high surface area of oil palm shell-activated carbon activated with NaOH from aqueous solution," Desalination, 257 (1–3), pp. 1–7, 2010.
 Y. Guo, S. Yang, K. Yu, J. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Xu, "The preparation and mechanism studies of rice husk based porous carbon," Mater. Chem. Phys., 74 (3), pp. 320–323, 2002.
 Y. Li, X. Ding, Y. Guo, L. Wang, C. Rong, Y. Qu, X. Ma, Z. Wang, "A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area," Mater. Chem. Phys., 127, pp. 495–500, 2011.
 F. Lian, B. Xing, L. Zhu, "Comparative study on composition, structure, and adsorption behavior of activated carbons derived from different synthetic waste polymers," J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 360 (2), pp. 725–730, 2011.</p>
Y. Sudaryanto, S.B. Hartono, W. Irawaty, H. Hindarso, S. Ismadji, "High surface area activated carbon prepared from cassava peel by chemical activation," Bioresour. Technol., 97 (5), pp. 734–739, 2006.