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Absorbed Dose Measurement in Gonads Menduring Abdominal and Pelvicradiotherapy

Sadegh Masoudi; Ali Asghar Yousefi; Somayeh Nourollahi; Fatemeh Noughani


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    "description": "<p>Two different testicular tissues have to be distinguished in regard to radiation damage: first the seminiferous tubules, corresponding to the sites of spermatogenesis, which are extremely radiosensitive. Second the testosterone secreting Leydig cells, which are considered to be less radiosensitive. This study aims to estimate testicular dose and the associated risks for infertility and hereditary effects from Abdominal and pelvic irradiation. Radiotherapy was simulated on a humanoid phantom using a 15 MV photon beam. Testicular dose was measured for various field sizes and tissue thicknesses along beam axis using an ionization chamber and TLD. For transmission Factor Also common method of measuring the absorbed dose distribution and electron contamination in the build-up region of high-energy beams for radiation therapy is by means of parallel-plate Ionisation chambers. Gonadal dose was reduced by placing lead cups around the testes supplemented by a field edge block. For a tumor dose of 100 cGy, testicular dose was 2.96-8.12 cGy depending upon the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. The treatment at parameters, the presence of gonad shield and the somatometric characteristics determine whether testicular dose can exceed 1 Gy which allows a complete recovery of spermatogenesis.</p>", 
    "language": "eng", 
    "title": "Absorbed Dose Measurement in Gonads Menduring Abdominal and Pelvicradiotherapy", 
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    "references": [
      "Hermann RM, Henkel K, Christiansen H, et al. Testicular dose and \nhormonal changes after radiotherapy of rectal cancer. RadiotherOncol \n2005;75:83\u20138.", 
      "Rowley MJ, Leach DR, Garner GA, Heller CG. Effects of graded doses \nof ionizing radiation on the human testis. Radiat Res 1974;59:665\u201378.", 
      "Clifton DK, Brenner WJ. The effect of testicular X-irradiation on \nspermatogenesis in man: a comparison with the mouse. J Androl \n1983;4:387\u201392.", 
      "Herrmann T. Radiation reactions in the gonads: importance in patient \ncounseling. StrahlentherOnkol 1997;173:493\u2013501.", 
      "Piroth MD, Hensley F, Wannenmacher M, Zierhut D. Male gonadal \ndose in adjuvant 3-d-pelvic irradiation after anterior resection of rectal \ncancer. Influence to fertility. Strahlenther Onkol 2003;179:754\u20139.", 
      "Izard MA. Leydig cell function and radiation: a review of the literature. \nRadiotherOncol 1995;34:1\u20138.", 
      "Dueland S, Guren MG, Olsen DR, Poulsen JP, MagneTveit K. Radiation \ntherapy induced changes in male sex hormone levels in rectal cancer \npatients. RadiotherOncol 2003;68:249\u201353.", 
      "M. Mazonakis, G. Kokona,et al \"Testicular dose and associated risk \nfrom inverted-Y field irradiation in patients with Hodgkin's \ndisease\"PhysicaMedica,. Vol. XXI, N. 4, October-December 2005", 
      "Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation: The Effects \non Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. \nWashington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, National Research \nCouncil, 1990 \n[10] International Commission on Radiological Protection: Report of the \nTask Group on Risk Estimation for Multifactorial Diseases, ICRP \nPublication 83, Annals of the ICRP 29(3-4), Oxford, Pergamon Press, \n1999 \n[11] Sankaranarayanan K, Chakraborty R: Ionizing radiation and genetic \nrisks. XIII. Summary and synthesis of papers VI to XII and estimates of \ngenetic risks in the year 2000. Mutat Res 453:183-197, 2000 \n[12] Sankaranarayanan K, Chakraborty R: Ionizing radiation and genetic \nrisks. XI. The doubling dose estimates from the mid-1950s to the present \nand the conceptual change to the use of human data for spontaneous \nmutation rates and mouse data for induced rates for doubling dose \ncalculations. Mutat Res 453:107-127, 2000 \n[13] Sankaranarayanan K, Chakraborty R: Ionizing radiation and genetic \nrisks. XII. The concept of potential recoverability correction factor \n(PRCF) and its use for predicting the risk of radiation-inducible genetic \ndiseases in human live births. Mutat Res 453:129-179, 2000 \n[14] Hall, Eric J.; Giaccia, Amato J\" Radiobiology for the Radiologist, 6th \nEdition\" Copyright \u00a92006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins \n[15] Busuoli G. General characteristics of TL materials. In: Oberhofer M, \nScharmann A, editors. Applied thermoluminescencedosimetry: lectures \nof a course held at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra, 12\u201316 November \n1979, 87. Bristol: Adam Hilger Ltd; 1981. (fig. 5.4(c)). \n[16] Centola G M, Keller J W, Henzler M, Rubin P. Efect of low-dose \ntesticular irradiation on sperm count and fertility in patients with \ntesticular seminoma. J Androl 1994: 15; 608-613. \n[17] Howell S, Shalet S. Gonadal damage from chemotherapyand \nradiotherapy. EndocrinolMetabClin North Am 1998: 27; 927-943. \n[18] Rowley M J, Leach D R, Warner G A, Heller C G. Effectof graded doses \nof ionizing radiation on the human testis. Radiat Res 1974: 59; 665-678. \n[19] Hansen P V, Trykker H, Svennekjaer I L, HvolbyJ. Longterm recovery \nof spermatogenesis after radiotherapy in patients with testicular cancer. \nRadiotherOncol 1990: 18; 117-125. \n[20] Ash R The influence of radiation on fertility in man. BrJ Radiol 1980: \n53; 271-278."
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "Absorbed Dose", 
      "Abdominal and pelvic", 
      "gonads men", 
      "Radiotherapy."
    ], 
    "publication_date": "2013-10-01", 
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      {
        "name": "Sadegh Masoudi"
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        "name": "Ali Asghar Yousefi"
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