Journal article Open Access
Sadegh Masoudi; Ali Asghar Yousefi; Somayeh Nourollahi; Fatemeh Noughani
Two different testicular tissues have to be distinguished in regard to radiation damage: first the seminiferous tubules, corresponding to the sites of spermatogenesis, which are extremely radiosensitive. Second the testosterone secreting Leydig cells, which are considered to be less radiosensitive. This study aims to estimate testicular dose and the associated risks for infertility and hereditary effects from Abdominal and pelvic irradiation. Radiotherapy was simulated on a humanoid phantom using a 15 MV photon beam. Testicular dose was measured for various field sizes and tissue thicknesses along beam axis using an ionization chamber and TLD. For transmission Factor Also common method of measuring the absorbed dose distribution and electron contamination in the build-up region of high-energy beams for radiation therapy is by means of parallel-plate Ionisation chambers. Gonadal dose was reduced by placing lead cups around the testes supplemented by a field edge block. For a tumor dose of 100 cGy, testicular dose was 2.96-8.12 cGy depending upon the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. The treatment at parameters, the presence of gonad shield and the somatometric characteristics determine whether testicular dose can exceed 1 Gy which allows a complete recovery of spermatogenesis.
Clifton DK, Brenner WJ. The effect of testicular X-irradiation on spermatogenesis in man: a comparison with the mouse. J Androl 1983;4:387–92.
Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation: The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, 1990  International Commission on Radiological Protection: Report of the Task Group on Risk Estimation for Multifactorial Diseases, ICRP Publication 83, Annals of the ICRP 29(3-4), Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1999  Sankaranarayanan K, Chakraborty R: Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. XIII. Summary and synthesis of papers VI to XII and estimates of genetic risks in the year 2000. Mutat Res 453:183-197, 2000  Sankaranarayanan K, Chakraborty R: Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. XI. The doubling dose estimates from the mid-1950s to the present and the conceptual change to the use of human data for spontaneous mutation rates and mouse data for induced rates for doubling dose calculations. Mutat Res 453:107-127, 2000  Sankaranarayanan K, Chakraborty R: Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. XII. The concept of potential recoverability correction factor (PRCF) and its use for predicting the risk of radiation-inducible genetic diseases in human live births. Mutat Res 453:129-179, 2000  Hall, Eric J.; Giaccia, Amato J" Radiobiology for the Radiologist, 6th Edition" Copyright ©2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins  Busuoli G. General characteristics of TL materials. In: Oberhofer M, Scharmann A, editors. Applied thermoluminescencedosimetry: lectures of a course held at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra, 12–16 November 1979, 87. Bristol: Adam Hilger Ltd; 1981. (fig. 5.4(c)).  Centola G M, Keller J W, Henzler M, Rubin P. Efect of low-dose testicular irradiation on sperm count and fertility in patients with testicular seminoma. J Androl 1994: 15; 608-613.  Howell S, Shalet S. Gonadal damage from chemotherapyand radiotherapy. EndocrinolMetabClin North Am 1998: 27; 927-943.  Rowley M J, Leach D R, Warner G A, Heller C G. Effectof graded doses of ionizing radiation on the human testis. Radiat Res 1974: 59; 665-678.  Hansen P V, Trykker H, Svennekjaer I L, HvolbyJ. Longterm recovery of spermatogenesis after radiotherapy in patients with testicular cancer. RadiotherOncol 1990: 18; 117-125.  Ash R The influence of radiation on fertility in man. BrJ Radiol 1980: 53; 271-278.
Dueland S, Guren MG, Olsen DR, Poulsen JP, MagneTveit K. Radiation therapy induced changes in male sex hormone levels in rectal cancer patients. RadiotherOncol 2003;68:249–53.
Hermann RM, Henkel K, Christiansen H, et al. Testicular dose and hormonal changes after radiotherapy of rectal cancer. RadiotherOncol 2005;75:83–8.
Herrmann T. Radiation reactions in the gonads: importance in patient counseling. StrahlentherOnkol 1997;173:493–501.
Izard MA. Leydig cell function and radiation: a review of the literature. RadiotherOncol 1995;34:1–8.
M. Mazonakis, G. Kokona,et al "Testicular dose and associated risk from inverted-Y field irradiation in patients with Hodgkin's disease"PhysicaMedica,. Vol. XXI, N. 4, October-December 2005
Piroth MD, Hensley F, Wannenmacher M, Zierhut D. Male gonadal dose in adjuvant 3-d-pelvic irradiation after anterior resection of rectal cancer. Influence to fertility. Strahlenther Onkol 2003;179:754–9.
Rowley MJ, Leach DR, Garner GA, Heller CG. Effects of graded doses of ionizing radiation on the human testis. Radiat Res 1974;59:665–78.