Journal article Open Access
Lolita Tomsone; Zanda Kruma; Ruta Galoburda
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family and contains biologically active substances. The aim of the current research was to determine best method for extraction of phenolic compounds from horseradish roots showing high antiradical activity. Three genotypes (No. 105; No. 106 and variety ‘Turku’) of horseradish roots were extracted with eight different solvents: n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, 2-propanol, acetone, ethanol (95%), ethanol / water / acetic acid (80/20/1 v/v/v) and ethanol / water (80/20 by volume) using two extraction methods (conventional and Soxhlet). As the best solvents ethanol and ethanol / water solutions can be chosen. Although in Soxhlet extracts TPC was higher, scavenging activity of DPPH˙ radicals did not increase. It can be concluded that using Soxhlet extraction method more compounds that are not effective antioxidants.
F. Daayf, V. Lattanzio, "Recent Advances in Polyohenol Research [1 ed.]" Wiley-Blackwell, 2008, 437 p.
F. Shahidi, M. Naczk, "Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals", CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2004, 403 p.
F. Shahidi, P.K.J.P.D. Wanasundara, "Phenolic antioxidants. CRC", Critical reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1992, pp. 67-103.
Food and Drug Administration, 2008 Food and Drug Administration. (2008). Everything added to food in the United States (EAFUS). <http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/ucm115326.htm>
G. Mazza, "Volatiles in distillates of fresh, dehydrated and freeze dried horseradish", Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 17 (1984), pp. 18–23.  Y.S. Velioglu, G. Mazza, L. Gao and B.D. Oomah, "Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998, vol. 46, pp. 4113–4117.  I.- S. Shina, J.-S. Hana, K.-D. Choia, D.-H. Chunga, G.P. Choib, J.Ahnc, "Effect of isothiocyanates from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) on the quality and shelf life of tofu ", Food Control, 2010, Vol. 21, Issue 8, pp. 1081-1086  D. Grigonisa, P.R. Venskutonisa, B. Sivikb, M. Sandahlb, C. S. Eskilssonc, "Comparison of different extraction techniques for isolation of antioxidants from sweet grass (Hierochloë odorata)", The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 2005, Vol. 33, Issue 3, pp. 223-233  J. A. Michiels, C. Kevers, J. Pincemail, J. O. Defraigne, J. Dommes, "Extraction conditions can greatly influence antioxidant capacity assays in plant food matrices", Food Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 130, Issue 4, pp. 986-993.  K. Zhou, L. Yu, "Effects of extraction solvent on wheat bran antioxidant activity estimation", LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2004, Vol. 37, Issue 7, pp. 717-721  G Spigno, L. Tramelli, D. M. De Faveri, "Effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent on concentration and antioxidant activity of grape marc phenolics", Journal of Food Engineering, 2007, Vol. 81, Issue 1, pp. 200-208.  N. E. Durling, Owen J. Catchpole, John B. Grey, Rosemary F. Webby, Kevin A. Mitchell, L. Yeap Foo, Nigel B. Perry, "Extraction of phenolics and essential oil from dried sage (Salvia officinalis) using ethanol–water mixtures", Food Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 101, Issue 4, pp 1417-1424.  M. Alothman, B. Rajeev, A.A. Karim, "Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents", Food Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 115, Issue 3, pp. 785-788.  V.L. Singleton, R. Orthofer, R.M. Lamuela-Raventos," Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.", Methods in Enzymology, 1999, vol. 29, pp. 152–178. L. Yu, S. Haley, J. Perret, M. Harris, J. Wilson, S. Haley, "Antioxidant properties of bran extracts from Akron wheat grown at different locations", Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 2003, vol. 51, pp. 1566-1570. H. Zhao, W. Fan, J. Dong, J. Lu, J. Chen, L. Shan, Y. Lin, W. Kong, "Evaluation of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of typical malting barley varieties", Food Chemistry, 2008, vol. 107, pp. 296–304.  F. Biglari, F. Abbas , M. AlKarkhi, M.E. Azhar, "Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of various date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits from Iran" Food Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 107, Issue 4, pp. 1636-1641.  F. Balestra , E. Cocci, G.G. Pinnavaia, S. Romani, "Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and bread containing ginger powder" LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2011, Vol. 44, Issue 3, pp. 700-705.  M. Škerget, P. Kotnik, M. Hadolin, A. Rižner Hraš, M. Simonič, Ž. Knez, "Phenols, proanthocyanidins, flavones and flavonols in some plant materials and their antioxidant activities", Food Chemistry, 2005, vol. 89, pp. 191-198.  L. Meot-Duros, Gaëtan Le Floch, Christian Magné, "Radical scavenging, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of halophytic species ", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2008, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp. 258-262.  B. Kong, Huiyun Zhang, Youling L. Xiong "Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action", Meat Science, 2010, Vol. 85, Issue 4, pp. 772- 778. A. Djeridane, M. Yousfi, B. Nadjemi, D. Boutassouna, P. Stocker, N. Vidal, "Antioxidant activity of some algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds", Food Chemistry, 2006, Vol. 97, Issue 4, pp. 654-660.  E. Tsantili, K. Konstantinidis, M.V. Christopoulos, P.A. Roussos, "Total phenolics and flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity in pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) nuts in relation to cultivars and storage conditions", Scientia Horticulturae, 2011, Vol. 129, Issue 4, pp. 694- 701.  N. Nićiforović, V. Mihailović, P. Mašković, S. Solujić, A. Stojković, D. Pavlović Muratspahić, "Antioxidant activity of selected plant species; potential new sources of natural antioxidants", Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2010, Vol. 48, Issue 11, pp. 3125-3130.  A. B. Hsouna, M. Saoudi, M. Trigui, K. Jamoussi, T. Boudawara, S. Jaoua, A. El Feki "Characterization of bioactive compounds and ameliorative effects of Ceratonia siliqua leaf extract against CCl4 induced hepatic oxidative damage and renal failure in rats", Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2011, Vol. 49, Issue 12, pp. 3183-3191.  Y. Lu, L. Yeap Foo "The polyphenol constituents of grape pomace", Food Chemistry, 1999, Vol. 65, Issue 1, pp. 1-8.  A. Luximon-Ramma, B. Theeshan, A. Crozier, V. Zbarsky, P. Krishna, T. David, I. Okezie, "Characterization of the antioxidant functions of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in Mauritian black teas ", Food Research International, 2005, Vol. 38, Issue 4, pp. 357-367.  Shi-Gang Sun Reply to the "Comments on the paper by M.-S. Zheng and S.-G. Sun entitled 'In situ FTIR spectroscopic studies of CO adsorption on electrodes with nanometer-scale thin films of ruthenium in sulfuric acid solutions' by C. Pecharromán, A. Cuesta and C. Gutiérrez" Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2002, Volume 529, Issue 2, pp. 155-158.  S.C. Liu, Jau-Tien Lin, Chin-Kun Wang, Hsin-Yi Chen, Deng-Jye Yang "Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from lychee (Litchi chinenesis Sonn.) flowers", Food Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 114, Issue 2, pp. 577-581.  J. Santas, R. Carbó, M.H. Gordon, M.P. Almajano, "Comparison of the antioxidant activity of two Spanish onion varieties" Food Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 107, Issue 3, pp. 1210-1216.  M. Dvorakova, M.M.Moreira, P. Dostalek, Z. Skulilova, L.F. Guido, A.A. Barros, "Characterization of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3- ols from barley and malt by liquid chromatography–ultraviolet detection–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ", Journal of Chromatography A, 2008, Vol. 1189, Issues 1-2, pp. 398-405.  A. López, M. Rico, A. Rivero, M. Suárez de Tangil, "The effects of solvents on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of Stypocaulon scoparium algae extracts", Food Chemistry, 2011, vol.125, Issue 3, pp. 1104-1109.  C. Hung Lee, L. Yang, J. Ze Xu, S. Ying, V. Yeung, Y. Huang, Z.Y. Chen, "Relative antioxidant activity of soybean isoflavones and their glycosides ", Food Chemistry, 2005, Volume 90, Issue 4, pp. 735-741.  J. Kubola, Sirithon Siriamornpun "Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) leaf, stem and fruit fraction extracts in vitro" Food Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 110, Issue 4, pp. 881-890.  K. Nagendra Prasad, B. Yang, S. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Zhao, M. Ashraf, Y. Jiang, "Identification of phenolic compounds and appraisal of antioxidant and antityrosinase activities from litchi (Litchi sinensis Sonn.) seeds" Food Chemistry, 2009,Volume 116, Issue 1, pp. 1-7.
H. Tapeiro, K. D. ew, Ba G. Nguyen, G. Mathe. Polyphenols, "Do they play a role in the prevention of human pathologies?", Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 2002, vol. 56, pp. 200-207.
M. Naczk, F. Shahidi, "Phenolic in cereals, fruit and vegetables: Occurrence, extraction and analysis", Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2006. pp. 1523-1542.
N. C. Veitch, "Horseradish peroxidase: a modern view of a classic enzyme", Phytochemistry, 2004, Vol. 65, Issue 3, pp. 249-259.
Z. Rappoport, "The Chemistry of Phenols", Wiley-Interscience, vol. 2, 2003, 1667 p.