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FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF BRACON HEBETOR VENOM ON TARGET AND NON-TARGET INSECT CELL LINES

Manzoor Atif; Abdin Ul Zain; Shaina Hoor; Webb A. Bruce; Jamil Amer


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    "description": "<p>Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies of insect cell physiology, toxicology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. The lethal effects of crude venom extracted from the ectoparasitic wasp <em>Bracon hebetor </em>were examined with three cultured insect cell lines; <em>Spodoptera frugiperda </em>(Sf9), <em>Tribolium castaneum </em>(TcA) and <em>Aedes aegypti </em>(Aag-2). Venom caused cells to round-up, swell and eventually die. Despite similar sensitivities and overlapping LC<sub>50</sub> values [(0.00125-0.00695) venom reservoir equivalents (VRE)/&micro;l], significant differences were noted at the onset of cytotoxicity among the three insect cell lines. Cells from the <em>Tribolium castaneum </em>(TcA) and <em>Aedes aegypti </em>(Aag-2) showed little sensitivity to the venom: 0.0046 VRE were needed to induce 50% mortality in TcA [50% lethal concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) = 0.0046 VRE/&micro;l], and 0.0069 VRE were needed to induce 50% mortality in Aag-2 [50% lethal concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) = 0.0069 VRE/&micro;l). Over 80% of the Sf9 cells were nonviable within 1 h after the addition of an LC<sub>99</sub> dose of venom, whereas the other cells required a 5-10-fold longer incubation period to produce mortality above 50%.</p>", 
    "language": "eng", 
    "title": "FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF BRACON HEBETOR VENOM ON TARGET AND NON-TARGET INSECT CELL LINES", 
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    "references": [
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Response of natural and factitious hosts to the ectoparasite Euplectrus plathypenae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Annual Entomological Society of. America, 81, 931-937. Coudron, T. A. (1991). Host-regulating factors associated with parasitic Hymenoptera. In: Hedin, P.A. (Ed.), Naturally Occurring Pest Regulators, ASC Symposium Series. American Chemical Society, Washington, 449, 41-65. Darwish, E., El-Shazly, M., & El-Sherif, H. (2003). The choice of probing sites by Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) foraging for Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Stored Product Research, 39, 265-276. Doury, G., Bigot, Y., & Periquet, G. (1997). Physiological and biochemical analysis of factors in the female venom gland and larval salivary secretions of the ectoparasitoid wasp Eupelmus orientalis. Journal of Insect Physiology, 43, 69-81. Drenth, D. (1973). Susceptibility of different species of insects to an extract of the venom gland of the wasp Microbracon hebetor (Say). Toxicon, 12, 189-192. Edwards, S., & Sernka, T.J. (1969). On the action of Bracon venom. Toxicon, 6, 303-305. Feyereisen, R. (1995). Molecular biology of insecticide resistance. Toxicology Letters, 82/83, 83-90. Finney, D. J. (1971). Probit Analysis, 3rd Edn. Cambridge University Press, 333 pp. Gul, M., & Gulel, A. (1995): Parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) \u00d5un biyolojisi ve konak larva buyuklu\u00dbunun verim ve e\u00dfey oran\u00f5 uzerine etkisi. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 19, 231-235. Gurevitz, M. (2010). A deadly scorpion provides a safe pesticide. Science news. http://www.sciencedaily.com. Heimpel, G.E., Antolin, M.F., Franqui, R.A., & Strand, M.R. (1997). Reproductive isolation and genetic variation between two ''strains'' of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological Control, 9, 149-156. Khalil, M. S., Raza, A. B. M., Afzal, M., Aqueel, M. A., Khalil, H., & Hance, T. (2016). Effects of different host species on the life history of Bracon hebetor. Animal Biology, 66(3-4), 403-414. Leng, P., Zhang, Z., Pan, G., & Zhao, M. (2011). Applications and development trends in biopesticides. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(86), 19864-19873. Piek, T., & Engels, E. (1969). Action of the venom of Microbracon hebetor Say on larvae and adults of Phzlosamia cynthia Hiibn. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 28, 603-618. Piek, T., & Thomas, R.T. (1969). Paralysing venoms of solitary wasps. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 30(1), 13-31. Piek, T. (1966). Site of action of venom of Microbracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Insect Physiology, 12, 561-568. Piek, T.W., Spanjer, W., Njio, K.D., Veenendaal, R.L., & Mantel, P. (1974). Paralysis caused by the venom of the wasp Microbracon gelechiae. Journal of Insect Physiology, 20, 2307-2319. Piek, T., & Spanjer, W. (1986). 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In vitro analysis of venom from the wasp Nasonia vitripennis: susceptibility of different cell lines and venom-induced changes in plasma membrane permeability. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, 35(2), 102-110. Stoddart, M. J. (2011). Mammalian cell viability: methods and protocols. Humana Press, 240pp. Tamashiro, M. (1971). A biological study of the venoms of two species of Bracon. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull., 70, 1-52. Yu, D. S., van Achterberg, C., & Horstmann, K. (2012). Taxapad 2012\u2013World Ichneumonoidae 2011. Taxonomy, Biology, Morphology and Distribution. On USB Flash drive. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Zhang, Z., Ye, G.Y., Cai, J., & Hu, C. (2005). Comparative venom toxicity between Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) toward the hemocytes of their natural hosts, non-target insects and cultured insect cells. Toxicon, 46(3), 337-349."
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    "keywords": [
      "Bracon hebetor, cell line, venom, VRE, parasitoids"
    ], 
    "publication_date": "2017-11-22", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan", 
        "name": "Manzoor Atif"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan", 
        "name": "Abdin Ul Zain"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan", 
        "name": "Shaina Hoor"
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      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA", 
        "name": "Webb A. Bruce"
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      {
        "affiliation": "Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan", 
        "name": "Jamil Amer"
      }
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