Journal article Open Access
Shyama Ranjani Weerakoon
Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis (SE) from petiole and leaf explants of Scaevola aemula R. Br. cv. 'Purple Fanfare' was achieved. High frequency of somatic embryos was obtained directly from petiole and leaf explants using an inductive plant growth regulator signal thidiazuron (TDZ). Petiole explants were more responsive to SE than leaves. Plants derived from somatic embryos of petiole explants germinated more readily into plants. SE occurred more efficiently in half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium than in full-strength MS medium. Non-embryogenic callus induced by 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was used to investigate the feasibility of obtaining SE with TDZ as a secondary inductive plant growth regulator (PGR) signal. Non-embryogenic callus of S. aemula was able to convert into an "embryogenic competent mode" with PGR signal. Protocol developed for induction of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis in S. aemula can improve the large scale propagation system of the plant in future.
D. Greig, The Handbook of Australian flowers for the garden and home. East Roseville, NSW, Australia: Simon & Schuster Australia, 1993, pp. 70-71.
J. A. Fuji, D. Slade and K. Redenbaugh, "Planting artificial seeds and somatic embryos," in Synseeds: application of synthetic seeds to crop improvement, K Redenbaugh, Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993.
P. L. Bhalla and H. Xu, "Plant regeneration from callus of Australian fan flower, Scaevola,".Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 154, pp. 374-378, 1999.
P. L. Bhalla and K. Sweeney, "Direct in vitro regeneration of the Australian fan flower, Scaevola R. Br.," Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 79, pp. 65-74, 1999.
T. Senaratna, "Artificial seeds," Biotechnology Advancement, vol. 10, pp.379-392, 1992.
T. Senaratna, B. D. McKersie and S. R. Bowley, "Artificial seeds: Induction of desiccation tolerance in somatic embryos," In Vitro Development in Biology, vol. 26, pp.85-90, 1990.
T. Senaratna, B. D. McKersieand S. R. Bowley, "Desiccation tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) somatic embryos. Influence of abscisic acid, stress pretreatments and drying rates," Plant Science, vol. 65, pp. 253-259, 1989.
Y. H. Wang and P. L. Bhalla, "Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Australian fan flower, Scaevola aemula R. Br.," Plant Cell Reports, vol. 22, pp. 408-414, 2004.
Yu-Hua, Wang and P. L. Bhalla, "Plant regeneration from cell suspensions initiated from leaf- and root- derived calli of the Australian ornamental plant Scaevola aemula R. Br.," Propagation of Ornamental Plants, vol. 6, pp. 55-60, 2006.  M. Vajrabhaya, "Embryogenesis," in Cell and Tissue Culture in Field Crop Improvement,. No. 38, M. Vajrabhaya. Ed. Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre Book Series, 1988, pp. 24-32.  P. Castillo, J. Marquez, A. Rubluo, G. Hernandez and M. Lara, "Plant regeneration from callus and suspension cultures of Valeriana edulis ssp. Procera via simultaneous organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis," Plant Science, vol. 151, pp. 115-119,2000.  J. L.Zimmerman, "Somatic embryogenesis: a model for early development in higher plants," The Plant Cell ,vol. 5, pp. 1411-1423, 1993.  A. N. Binns, "Cytokinin accumulation and action: Biochemical, genetic and molecular approaches," Annual Review of Plant Physiology , vol. 45, pp. 73-196, 1994.  T. Badzian, G. R. Hennen and J. Fotyma-Kern, "In vitro rooting of clonal propagated miniature rose cultivars,"ISHS Acta Horticulturae, vol. 289, pp. 329-330, 1991.  Z. A. Sajid and F. Aftab, "Effect of Thidiazuron (TDZ) on in vitro micropropagation of Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Desiree and Cardinal," Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 41, pp. 1811-1815, 2009.  M. I. Hutchinson, R. S. Krishma and P. K. Saxena, "Morphological and physiological changes during thiadiazuron induced somatic embryogenesis in geranium (Pelargonium hortorum L.) hypocotyl culture,". International Journal of Plant Science, vol. 157, pp. 110-117, 1996.  R. Gill,J. M. Gerrath and P. K. Saxena, "High frequency direct somatic embryogenesis in thin layer cultures of hybrid seed geranium (Pelargonium hortorum L.)," Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 71, pp. 408-413, 1993.  L. Radojevic, O. Sokic and B. Tucic, "Somatic embryogenesis in tissue culture of iris (Iric pumila L.)," Acta Horticulturae, vol. 212, pp. 719- 723, 1987.  C. Visser, J. A. Qureshi, R. Grill, K. A. Malik and P. K. Saxena, "Morpho-regulatory role of thidiazuron: Submission of auxin and cytokinin requirement for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in geranium hypocotyls culture," Plant Physiology, vol. 99, pp. 1704-1707, 1992.  T. Murashige and F. Skoog, "A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures,"Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 115, pp. 493-497, 1962.  K. Tanaka, Y. Kanno, S. Kudo and M. Suzuki, "Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthem grandiflorum (Ramat) Kitamura," Plant Cell Reports, vol. 19, pp. 946-953, 2000.  S. Sushmakumari, K. Rekha, V. Thomas, S. Sobha and R. Jayasree, "Multiple shoot formation from somatic embryos of Hevea brasiliensis (Muell) Arg.," Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, vol. 12, pp. 23-28, 1999.  C. Visser-Tenyenhuis, B. N. S. Murthy and J. Odumeru, "Modulation of somatic embryogenesis in hypocotyls-derived cultures of geranium (Pelagonium x hortorum Bailey) cv Ringo Rose by a bacterium," In Vitro Cellular & Developmental. Biology - Plant, vol. 30, pp. 140- 143,1994.  A. B. Martin, Y. Cuadrado, H. Guerra, P. Gallego, O. Hita, L. Martin, A. Dorado and N. Villalobos, "Differences in the contents of total sugars, reducing sugars, starch and sucrose in embryogenic and nonembryogenic calli from Medicago arborea L.," Plant Science, vol. 154, pp. 143-151, 2000.  M. G. Taylor and I. K. Vasil, "The ultrastructure of somatic embryo development in pearl millet (Pennsisetum glaucum; Poaceae)," American Journal of Botany, vol. 83, pp. 28-44, 1996.  Z. Ipekci and N. Gozukirmizi, "Indirect somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf and internode explants of Paulownia elongate," Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, vol. 79, pp. 341-345, 2005.  H. K. Neumann, "Some studies on somatic embryogenesis, a tool in plant biotechnology,"http://bibd.uni-giessen.de/gdoc/2000/p000004.pdf., 2000.  U. B. Barwale, H. R. Kerns and J. M. Widholm, "Plant regeneration from callus cultures of several soybean genotypes via embryogenesis and organogenesis," Planta, vol. 167, pp. 473-481, 1986.  C. E. Van Schaik, A. Posthuma, M. J. De Jeu and E. Jacobsen, "Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from callus induced on immature embryos of Alstroemeria spp. L.," Plant Cell Reports, vol. 15, pp. 377-380, 1996.  H. S. Lin, M. J. De Jeu and E. Jacobsen, "Development of a plant regeneration system based on friable embryogenic callus in the ornamental Alstroemeria," Plant Cell Reports, vol. 19, pp. 529-534, 2000.