Report Open Access
This report documents and places into context an intensification of armed attacks on civilians in key areas of
Sudan’s contested oil region in Western Upper Nile during 2000 and 2001. The attacks were carried out by
Government of Sudan (GoS) forces and local pro-government militias and by rebel forces of, or aligned with,
the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Sudan Peoples’ Democratic Front / Defence Force
(SPDF). A significant new development in the period 2000-2001 is a higher number of direct attacks on
civilians by the armed forces of the Government of Sudan.
The report concentrates on the the operational area of the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company
(GNPOC), the oil consortium that comprises the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Petronas
Carigali (the national petroleum company of Malaysia, or its subsidiary Petronas Carigali Overseas Sudan
Berhad), Sudapet (the Sudan state petroleum company) and Canada’s Talisman Energy (Talisman). As noted
in the preliminary report of this mission, the investigators found that there was an increase in the number of
recorded helicopter gunship attacks on settlements in or near this area. Some of these gunships have operated
from facilities built, maintained and used by the oil consortium. The attacks are part of what appears to be a
renewed Government of Sudan strategy to displace indigenous non-Arab inhabitants from specific rural areas
of the oil region in order to clear and secure territory for oil development.