Journal article Open Access

Clinical presentation, risk factors and outcomes of tuberculosis in military recruits

Lesnic, Evelina; Kulcitkaia, Stela; Niguleanu, Adriana

Background: Tuberculosis represents the major threat for the health protection in the military forces. The aim of this retrospective and descriptive studywas the evaluation of risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis in military recruits.

Material and methods: 51 military recruits with tuberculosis diagnosed during 01.01.2010-31.12.2015 in Chisinau military quarters and managed inthe Hospital of Pneumophtysiology were assessed.

Results:Most of military recruits aged 18-22, were residents of the rural localities, graduated incomplete general school or lyceum and were economicallyvulnerable. One half of the group consisted of active smokers and every tenth patient abused alcohol. Every fourth patient had tuberculosis in childhoodand every tenth had family contact with a tuberculosis-affected person. Disease’s insidious onset was established in one half of the group and the acuteonset in every fourth patient. Every tenth patient was diagnosed with tuberculosis within the first 6 months after the enrollment. Only one half of thegroups were symptomatic patients, who complained of cough, asthenia and loss of weight. Pulmonary infiltrative tuberculosis predominated amongrecruits. Extensive infiltrates and involvement of both lungs were identified in a lower proportion. The high rate of successful treatment outcome wasendangered by the high rate of lost to follow-up patients, demonstrating poor evaluation and follow-up after the discharging from the hospital.

Conclusions: The epidemiological studies among military recruits are limited. The high rate of young, economically vulnerable men with risk factorsdemonstrates their priority for active screening. Treatment outcomes must be improved by the implementation of the adequate follow-up after hospitaldischarging.

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