Journal article Open Access

Cyber Crime and Legal Countermeasures: A Historical Analysis

Li, Johannes Xingan

K, Jaishankar

This article reviews the historical development of cyber crime and legal countermeasures. The article divides the process into four stages and concludes that cyber criminal phenomena have developed almost synchronously with Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Cyber crimes are in a process of accelerating development and are becoming gradually routinized. Notably, the electronic divide thus results in cyber crime divide. The basic conclusion is that criminal resources decide the amount of crime, while judicial resources decide the deterrence. When the balance is reached between criminal resources and judicial resources in the long term, the criminal phenomena will be saturated at an equilibrium point. 

Files (329.1 kB)
Name Size
LIijcjs2017vol12issue2.pdf md5:cfecb39edc4fd15f92ba11a8dc04f34d 329.1 kB Download
  • Allan, R. A. (2001). A History of the Personal Computer: The People and the Technology. London, Ontario: Allan Publishing. Association for Computing Machinery. (1997). Professional Knowledge Programme. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery. Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76, 169-217. Bell, D. (1974). The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society. London: Heinemann. Bequai, A. (1978). Computer Crime. Lexington, Massachusetts, Toronto: Lexington Books. Bequai, A. (1979). White-Collar Crime: A 20th Century Crisis. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books. BloomBecker, J. (3 August 1981). Employee Computer Abuse –What to Do?. The Los Angeles Daily Journal, pp. 16-17. Bourne, C. P., & Hahn, T. B. (2004). A History of Online Information Services, 1963-1976. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Bynum, T. (2001). Computer Ethics: Basic Concepts and Historical Overview, in Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from Castells, M. (1985). High Technology, Economic Restructuring, and the Urban-Regional Process in the United States. In M. Castells. (ed.). High Technology, Space, and Society (pp. 11-40), Urban Affairs Annual Reviews, volume 28, Beverly Hills, London: Sage Publications. Chen, C. D. (1990). Computer Crime and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986. Computer Law Journal, 10(1), 71-86. Clarke, A. C. (1997). 3001: The Final Odyssey. Hammersmith, London: Voyager. Clarke, A. C. (1984). 1984: Spring, London: Granada Publishing. Cohen, F. (1984). Computer Viruses-Theory and Experiments, IFIP TC 11 Conference, Toronto. Retrieved from Cooter, R., & Ulen, T. (2003). Law and Economics, fourth edition, Addison Wesley, 2003. Cortada, J. W. (2002). Making the Information Society: Experiences, Consequences, and Possibilities, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR. CSI. 2004. CSI/FBI (2004). Computer Crime and Security Survey. CSI. 2005. CSI/FBI (2005). Computer Crime and Security Survey. CSI. 2011. CSI/FBI (2011). Computer Crime and Security Survey, p. 11. Dierks, M. P. (1993). Computer Network Abuse. Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, 6, 307-342. Drummond, N., & McClendon, D. J. (2001). Cybercrime- Alternative Models for Dealing with Unauthorized Use and Abuse of Computer Networks. Retrieved from Dunlop, C., & Kling, R. (1991). Introduction to Security and Reliability. In C. Dunlop & R. Kling (eds.), Computerization and Controversy: Value Conflicts and Social Choices (pp. 524-532). San Diego: Academic Press. Dunlop, C., & Kling, R. (eds.). (1991). Computerization and Controversy: Value Conflicts and Social Choices. San Diego: Academic Press. Dvorak, J. C., & Pirillo, C. (2004). Online! Pearson Education. Fager, C. (9 December 2004). The 419 Fraud. Christianity Today, 46(13), 20. Fetherolf S. (1982). Telecommunications and the Future. In H. F. Didsbury (ed.) Communications and the Future, (pp. 211-222). Chicago: World Future Society. Forester, T. (1990). Software Theft and the Problem of Intellectual Property Rights. Computer and Society. 20(1), 2-11. Freeh, L. J. (28 March 2000). Statement for the Record of Louis J. Freeh, Director FBI on Cybercrime Before the Senate Committee (Judiciary Subcommittee for the Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information), Washington, D.C. Retrieved from F-Secure. (2005). F-Secure Expands Asian Business and Launches First Major Internet Service Provider Relationship. Retrieved from Gibson, W. (1984). Neuromancer. New York: Ace Books. Gore, A. (21 March 2004). Speech to the International Telecommunications Development Conference, Buenos Aires. Hafner, K., & Lyon, M. (1998). When Wizards Stay up Late: The Origins of the Internet (pp. 10-14). New York: Simon and Schuster. Hamilton, D. (1973). Technology, Man and the Environment. London: Faber and Faber. Katyal, N. K. (2001). Criminal Law in Cyberspace. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 149, 1003-1114. Kelly, J. X. 2002. Cybercrime - High Tech Crime, JISC Legal Information Service - University of Strathclyde. Retrieved 15 June 2016, from Kollock, P., & Smith, M. (1999). Communities in Cyberspace. In: M. Smith & P. Kollock (eds.), Communities in Cyberspace (pp. 3-28). London: Routledge. Kuck, D. J. (1978). The Structure of Computers and Computations. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Levinson, D. (ed.). (2002). Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Li, X. (2003). Lun Wangluo Fanzui (Crimes on the Internet), Law Library. Retrieved from Li, X. (2005). Economic analysis of cybercrime: the mixed provision of private goods. In: J. Roufagalas (Ed.), Resource Allocation and Institutions: Explorations in Economics, Finance and Law (pp. 607−620). Athens, Greece: ATINER. Li, X. (2008). Cyber crime and Deterrence: Networking Legal Systems in the Networked Information Society. Turku: Uniprint. Longstaff, T. A., & co-workers. (1997). Security of the Internet, in The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications. 15, 231-255. New York: Marcel Dekker. Meinel, C. (2004). Computer Hacking--Where Did It Begin and How Did It Grow? Guide to Harmless Hacking. Beginners' Series, 5. Milhorn, H. T. (2005). Crime: Computer Viruses to Twin Towers. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers. Mosco, V. (2004). The Digital Sublime: Myth, Power, and Cyberspace. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Nelson, B. (1991). Straining the Capacity of the Law: The Idea of Computer Crime in the Age of the Computer Worm. Computer Law Journal, 11(2), 299-321. Okin, J. R. (2004). The Internet Revolution: The Not-for-dummies Guide to the History, Technology, and Use of the Internet. Winter Harbor: Ironbound Press. Overill, R. E. (1998). Computer crime - An Historical Survey. Retrieved from Parker, D. B. (1989). Computer Crime: Criminal Justice Resources Manual. National Institute of Justice. Peterson, T. F. (2003). Nightwork: A History of Hackers and Pranks at MIT. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Raymond, E. S. (2001). The Cathedral and the Bazaar. Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly and Associates. Rosenberg. M. J. (2001). E-Learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age. New York: McGraw-Hill. Rowland, D. (1998). Cyberspace - A Contemporary Utopia? The Journal of Information, Law and Technology, 1998, number 3. Retrieved from Sieber, U. (1996). Computer Crime and Criminal Information Law - New Trends in the International Risk and Information Society - Statement for the Hearing on Security in Cyberspace of the United States Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Governmental Affairs, 16 July. Sieber, U. (1998). Legal Aspects of Computer-Related Crime in the Information Society, The COMCRIME-Study for the European Commission. Retrieved from Sterling, B. (1994). The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier, Austin, Texas: Electronic Release. Retrieved from Tapscott, D. (1996). The Digital Economy: Promise and Peril in The Age of Networked Intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill. Thomas, D. (2002). Hacker Culture, Minneapolis, Minnesota: The University of Minnesota Press. Wood, M. B. (1982). Introducing Computer Security. The U.S.: NCC Publications.


Cite as